In my post First Learn Success, I discussed how most of us are likely unprepared for the challenges we seek but we don't realize it. We live a life of delusion. We believe we will rise to the challenge, but we will actually fall to our level of training. Imagine never running and convincing yourself that you'll qualify for the Boston Marathon one day. This delusion is known as illusory superiority (I.S.) (sometimes confused with the Dunning-Kruger effect)—the illusion of perceived superiority in any metric. So, this could be your average runner friend who thinks they'll win the Boston Marathon this year or Donald Trump.
Whoever this is to you, show them this study, because these researchers were able to relate brain connectivity to I.S. They found the more connected your brain, the less likely you are to suffer from I.S. So, if you think you're ready, then you're likely unprepared. Read my post How about those 10,000 hours if you haven't because I talk about preparation, the importance of hitting 10,000 quality hours, and learning how to generate quality hours.
Researchers from Penn were able to show that the neurons that coordinate movement in the body become hard-wired with negative feedback (practice really does make permanent). A negative feedback would be falling off your bike when learning to ride it. We quickly learn that it doesn't feel good to fall and we learn how to differentiate stability and falling. So, falling allows us to slowly learn which pathways are important for not falling, but falling isn't obvious. Take when Tom Kite reminds Homer that the point of cheating at golf is to lower your score.
Learning how to learn is learning how to quickly find negative feedback; we can only find negative feedback by working towards a goal; the simple act of working towards this goal is what strengthens our neural pathways; these pathways define our abilities; ability is what determines our preparedness for success. Learning how to be successful is like going through a maze—just because you can go left doesn't mean you should.